Washington, DC–(ENEWSPF)–June 27, 2014. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering a request by Texas regulators to allow the use of a controversial herbicide, propazine, to battle Palmer amaranth, a glyphosate-resistant “super weed” that has been plaguing growers of genetically engineered (GE) herbicide-tolerant cotton in the state. Propazine, an active ingredient in Milo-Pro, would be sprayed on up to 3 million acres, which amounts to approximately half of the state’s estimated crop acreage for this season. As currently proposed, the maximum amount of product to be applied would be 70,314 gallons.
The Texas Department of Agriculture, on behalf of chemical-intensive GE cotton growers, asked EPA last month for an exemption to permit growers to spray fields with the herbicide this summer in order to control this highly invasive plant, also known as pigweed. Pigweed can grow up to 3 inches a day and is one of many plant species that has developed a resistance to glyphosate, a systemic herbicide found in Roundup that has become one of the most widely used pesticides on the market. Public comments are due by July 3, 2014.
The occurrence of super weeds coincides strongly with the use of toxic herbicides on genetically engineered (GE) crops. According to one study, “Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. — the first sixteen years,” author Charles Benbrook, Ph.D. writes that the emergence and spread of glyphosate resistant-weeds is strongly correlated with the upward trajectory of herbicide use. This makes Texas’s push to use propazine all the more troubling, as it would contribute to a “pesticide treadmill,” or positive feedback loop, generating new super weeds and necessitating the use of increasingly more toxic chemicals to control them. The failure of glyphosate-tolerant, Roundup Ready (RR) crops has already resulted in a push for Dow Chemical’s 2,4-D-tolerant corn and soybean. Subsequently, the use of 2,4-D, a highly toxic herbicide, on these GE crops has been estimated to increase 1.75-3 times current use, with independent estimates much higher.
A number of environmental groups, including Beyond Pesticides, oppose the propazine proposal on the basis that the pesticide presents a potential risk to human health. Propazine is a restricted-use pesticide that requires a license to purchase and apply, according to Milo-Pro’s manufacturer. Propazine is also closely related to atrazine, an herbicide used by corn growers that is banned in the European Union. A number of studies conducted by Tyrone Hayes, Ph.D., of the University of California, Berkeley, cite that atrazine can disrupt sexual reproduction in certain frog species. [email protected]+1400“>Studies that investigated the effects of subchronic and chronic exposure to propazine found that a variety of animal species were shown to exhibit neuroendocrine effects resulting in both reproductive and developmental consequences that are considered relevant to humans. According to EPA’s Pesticide Fact Sheet on propazine (1998), “Propazine has been classified as a Group “C” (possible human carcinogen) chemical based on significant increases in mammary gland adenomas and adenomas/carcinomas in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The EPA used the Q1* approach with Q1*= 4.45 x 10-2 based on the Multi-Stage Weib model using a 3/4 scaling factor.” The California Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has also issued a notice of intent to list propazine and atrazine under Proposition 65, which requires the state to regulate chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm and forces manufacturers to label their products to warn consumers.
Pursuing sustainable alternatives can prevent the pesticide treadmill that results from the overuse of GE crops and pesticides like propazine. Integrated pest management strategies, organic practices, and solutions that are not chemical-intensive would be the most appropriate and long-term solution to battling pigweed. Additionally, organic agriculture is an ecologically-based management system that prioritizes cultural, biological, mechanical production practices, and natural inputs. By strengthening on-farm resources, such as soil fertility, pasture and biodiversity, organic farmers can minimize and even avoid the production challenges that most genetically engineered organisms have been falsely-marketed as solving. To learn more about organic agriculture, see Beyond Pesticides Organic Program Page.
Please consider submitting public comments against the issuance of this emergency exemption by July 3, 2014.
Learn more about toxic pesticides and their effects on health by checking out Beyond Pesticide’s Pesticide-Induced Diseases Database. You can also read more about genetic engineering, including latest news, here.
All unattributed positions and opinions in this piece are those of Beyond Pesticides